Nošovické kysané zelí (Nošovicé sauerkraut)
Appearance: finely chopped cabbage.
Colour: golden yellow; any change in colour, particularly grey or reddish hues, is considered a negative factor.
Taste: from acidic to slightly bitter. Odour: of cabbage.
Consistency: fine shreds. Physico-chemical properties (average nutritional values per 100 g of product): energy value: 84 kJ, lipids 2 g, proteins 7 g, sugars 39 g; vitamin C present in natural quantities.
The following raw materials are used in the manufacture of the fermented cabbage: white cabbage, salt, caraway, mustard seeds. The following varieties are grown and used for producing the final product: Gloria, Ramco, Kingstone, Zerelina, Oklahoma and Theras. The raw white cabbage must have been grown in the defined area, whose environment influences the properties of the final product. The properties of ‘Nošovické kysané zelí’ are obtained by means of a process of natural lactic fermentation in individual vats. Traditional packages are of 0,5 and 1 kg.
The area and environs of the municipalities of Nošovice and Nižní Lhoty, in the district of Frýdek-Místek, Moravskoslezsko Region. The territory is delimited by, and includes, the municipalities of Nošovice, Nižní Lhoty, Vyšní Lhoty, Kamenité, Dobratice, Dolní Tošanovice, Dolní Domaslavice, Kocurovice, Pazderna and Dobrá.
Method of production:
Brief description of how the cabbage is cultivated: during October and November, farmyard litter is applied to the land and worked into the soil; in winter the land is allowed to rest; in March, the land is levelled; April, sowing; May-June, hoeing, thinning out, weeding, dressing with fertiliser, further hoeing; August-November harvesting; after the harvest, working-in of harvest residue, deep ploughing.
‘Nošovické kysané zelí’ is produced exclusively from cabbage of varieties that are suitable for shredding and grown in the defined area, where it is also processed. It is shredded and salt, caraway and mustard seed are added to it. Thus prepared, the cabbage is placed in a vat, where it is trodden in the traditional manner, after which it is left to ferment for at least six weeks at a temperature of 18 °C. The process in question is natural lactic fermentation in individual vats in a fermentation room. The vats are cylinders with a diameter of 3 m and a height of 4 m, made of glass-fibre laminate. Three metres of the vat's height are below ground, one metre above ground.
All the production operations must be carried out as rapidly as possible so that there is no loss of water from the cells, or of nutritive value and the cabbage's precious vitamin C. In the case of fresh cabbage, processing takes place within 48 hours. The fresh variety is Gloria. After fermentation the product is removed from the vat and packed in packages of 500 g or 1 kg. If consumers so wish, it is possible to prepare smaller or bigger packages. All these operations are carried out in accordance with hygiene regulations.
The cabbage ferments in vats without being disturbed. Moving it could start a process of oxidation, with a change in the colour of the cabbage to grey, internal changes in storage conditions and a consequent change in taste. For that reason, packaging takes place at the production site.
The fermented cabbage is also produced from stored cabbage. For that purpose, late varieties of cabbage with good storage properties are selected. Long-lasting varieties include Ramco, Kingstone, Zerelina, Oklahoma and Theras. Storage is of whole cabbages, in a semi-climate-controlled room, at a temperature of 5 °C. Quality checks are carried out every day by the person in charge of the production facility. The checks concern both the raw materials and the finished product. In the case of fresh cabbage for shredding, the check is mainly intended to ensure that its quality has not been impaired by contamination, fungal diseases or insects. In the case of stored cabbage, the checks concern in particular its appearance, colour, taste, odour and consistency. The results of the quality checks are entered in the inspection book and in a hygiene log, which are kept at the production facility.
cabbage has been grown and processed in the area of Nošovice for a long time. As evidence one may cite, among other things, the fact that the coat of arms of Nošovice include a pannier and a cabbage-cutter. Fermented cabbage, as a traditional foodstuff and commodity, is of unique significance in the region. Local people's knowledge of cabbage cultivation and the production of fermented cabbage has been passed down from generation to generation and plays a significant part in the resulting characteristics of the product.
The product has an exceptional taste owing to the environment in which the main raw material — white cabbage — is cultivated. It is grown in the foothills of the Beskids, a big mountain range. As regards the natural conditions, this is an area situated in a foothill location, in the valley of the river Moravka; summer is of average length, rainfall is abundant all year, the climate is moderately cold and damp; the soils are clayey with a low pH. All these conditions, taken together, give the cabbage its distinctive taste. The municipality of Nošovice is situated at 346 m above sea-level, and the municipality of Nižní Lhoty is 359 m above sea-level.
A soil analysis of 24 samples from 10 parcels of arable land produced the following results: available phosphorus: 77 mg/kg; available potash: 218 g/kg; available magnesium: 140 mg/kg. Altogether, 120 measurements were carried out for the following five parameters: CO3, P, K, Mg and Ca. The pH was also measured, as was the extent to which liming was necessary. Detailed assessment showed that the pH figure was relatively low: acidic, slightly acidic or very acidic everywhere. This also influences the pH of the raw and fermented cabbage, which is thus naturally and agreeably acidic and does not require the addition of sharply acidic substances. The agreeable taste and high quality of the raw and fermented product are to a large extent due to the soil conditions. At exhibitions and fairs the product is appreciated for its characteristic taste, colour and fine and firm consistency.
Reference: The European Commission