Karela

From Cookipedia


Karela (bitter melon), close-up
Momordica charantia

Karela, bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash, (Momordica charantia) is a tropical and subtropical vine of the family Cucurbitaceae, widely grown in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean for its edible fruit, which is extremely bitter. Its many varieties differ substantially in the shape and bitterness of the fruit.

Bitter melon originated on the Indian subcontinent, and was introduced into China in the 14th century.

The 'fruit'

The fruit has a distinct warty exterior and an oblong shape. It is hollow in cross-section, with a relatively thin layer of flesh surrounding a central seed cavity filled with large, flat seeds and pith. The fruit is most often eaten green, or as it is beginning to turn yellow. At this stage, the fruit's flesh is crunchy and watery in texture, similar to cucumber, chayote or green bell pepper, but bitter. The skin is tender and edible. Seeds and pith appear white in unripe fruits; they are not intensely bitter and can be removed before cooking.

As the fruit ripens, the flesh (rind) becomes tougher, more bitter, and too distasteful to eat. On the other hand, the pith becomes sweet and intensely red; it can be eaten uncooked in this state, and is a popular ingredient in some Southeast Asian salads. When the fruit is fully ripe, it turns orange and mushy, and splits into segments which curl back dramatically to expose seeds covered in bright red pulp.

Culinary uses

Bitter melon is generally consumed cooked in the green or early yellowing stage. The young shoots and leaves of the bitter melon may also be eaten as greens.

Bitter melon is often used in Chinese cooking for its bitter flavour, typically in stir fries (often with pork and douchi), soups, and herbal teas. It has also been used in place of hops as the bittering ingredient in some Chinese and Okinawan beers.

It is very popular throughout South Asia. In North Indian cuisine, it is often prepared with potatoes and served with yogurt on the side to offset the bitterness, used in sabzi or stuffed with spices and then cooked in oil. In Southern India, it is used in the dishes thoran/thuvaran (mixed with grated coconut), mezhukkupuratti (stir fried with spices), theeyal (cooked with roasted coconut) and pachadi (which is considered a medicinal food for diabetics). Other popular recipes include preparations with curry, deep fried with peanuts or other ground nuts, and Pachi Pulusu (కాకరకాయ పచ్చి పులుసు), a soup with fried onions and other spices. In Tamil Nadu, a special preparation called pagarkai pitla (பாகற்காய் பிட்லா), a kind of sour koottu (கூட்டு), variety is very popular. Also popular is kattu pagarkkai (கட்டு பாகற்காய்), a curry that involves stuffing with onions, cooked lentil and grated coconut mix, tied with thread and fried in oil. In Konkan region of Maharashtra, salt is added to finely chopped bitter gourd and then it is squeezed, removing its bitter juice to some extent. After frying this with different spices, less bitter and crispy preparation is served with grated coconut.

In Pakistan and Bangladesh, bitter melon is often cooked with onions, red chili powder, turmeric powder, salt, coriander powder, and a pinch of cumin seeds. Another dish in Pakistan calls for whole, unpeeled bitter melon to be boiled and then stuffed with cooked minced beef, served with either hot tandoori bread, naan, chapati, or with khichri (a mixture of lentils and rice).

In Indonesia, bitter melon is prepared in various dishes, such as gado-gado, and also stir fried, cooked in coconut milk, or steamed.

In Vietnam, raw bitter melon slices consumed with dried meat floss and bitter melon soup with shrimp are popular dishes. Bitter melons stuffed with ground pork are served as a popular summer soup in the south. It is also used as the main ingredient of "stewed bitter melon". This dish is usually cooked for the Tết holiday, where its "bitter" name is taken as a reminder of the poor living conditions experienced in the past.

In the Philippines, bitter melon may be stir fried with ground beef and oyster sauce, or with eggs and diced tomato. The dish pinakbet, popular in the Ilocos region of Luzon, consists mainly of bitter melons, eggplant, okra, string beans, tomatoes, lima beans, and other various regional vegetables altogether stewed with a little bagoong-based stock.

In Nepal, bitter melon is prepared as a fresh pickle called achar. For this, the bitter gourd is cut into cubes or slices and sautéed covered in oil and a sprinkle of water. When it is softened and reduced, it is minced in a mortar with a few cloves of garlic, salt and a red or green pepper. It is also sautéed to golden-brown, stuffed, or as a curry on its own or with potatoes.

In Trinidad and Tobago bitter melons are usually sautéed with onion, garlic and scotch bonnet pepper until almost crisp.

5 a day; fruit and vegetable portion sizes

We have recently started to take delivery of a weekly organic fruit and vegetable box which has of course heightened our interest in the 5 a day fruit and vegetable regime. This simple app will show you what makes up one of your 5 a day portions of vegetables. You'll be surprised how small the quantities are in some instances. You'll be able to eat healthier and feel all the better for it.

Select a fruit or vegetable from the picker below to see what its daily portion consists of

What are you waiting for? Pick your fruit and veg now!
3 heaped tablespoons of tinned Ackee
2 Globe Artichoke hearts
7 spears of tinned asparagus
5 spears of fresh asparagus
One third of an Aubergine/Eggplant
3 heaped tablespoons of barlotti beans
3 heaped tablespoons of black-eyed beans
3 heaped tablespoons of broad beans
3 heaped tablespoons of butter beans
3 heaped tablespoons of cannellini beans
4 heaped tablespoons of French beans
3 heaped tablespoons of kidney beans
3 heaped tablespoons of pinto beans
4 heaped tablespoons of runner beans
3 heaped tablespoons of soya beans
2 handfuls of fresh bean sprouts
3 whole bottled beetroot
3 whole fresh baby beetroot
2 spears of broccoli
8 Brussels sprouts
3 heaped tablespoons of butternut squash
2 handfuls of sliced cabbage
3 heaped tablespoons of shredded cabbage
3 heaped tablespoons of tinned carrots
3 heaped tablespoons of fresh carrot slices
8 florets of cauliflower
3 sticks of celery
3 heaped tablespoons of chickpeas
One fifth of a head of Chinese leaves
Half a large courgette
5 cm (2 inch) piece of cucumber
4 heaped tablespoons of curly kale
Half a karela (bitter melon)
1 leek (white portion only)
3 tablespoons of lentils
1 cereal bowl of lettuce (mixed leaves)
1 handful of mange-tout
3 heaped tablespoons of marrow
3 tablespoons of frozen mixed vegetables
14 mushrooms
2 tablespoons of dried mushrooms
16 medium Okra
1 medium Onion
3 heaped tablespoons of pak choi (Chinese cabbage)
1 large Parsnip
3 heaped tablespoons of tinned peas
3 heaped tablespoons of fresh peas
3 heaped tablespoons of frozen peas
Half a tinned sweet pepper
Half a bottled sweet pepper
Half a fresh sweet pepper
3 heaped tablespoons of tinned pigeon peas
3 heaped tablespoons of pumpkin
10 Radishes
2 heaped tablespoons of cooked spinach
1 cereal bowl of fresh spinach leaves
4 heaped tablespoons of cooked spring greens
8 spring onions
1 handful of sugar snap peas
3 heaped tablespoons of swede
1 large sweet potato
6 baby sweetcorn
3 heaped tablespoons of tinned sweetcorn
1 whole sweetcorn cob
1 heaped tablespoon of tomato puree
2 whole tinned plum tomatoes
1 whole fresh tomato
7 fresh cherry tomatoes
3 heaped tablespoons of turnip
150ml glass of unsweetened vegetable juice
150ml glass of vegetable smoothie
1 cereal bowl of fresh watercress
1 fresh apple
2 heaped tablespoons of apple puree
6 halves of unsweetened tinned apricots
3 whole fresh apricots
Half an avocado
1 banana
10 blackberries
4 heaped tablespoons of blackcurrants
4 heaped tablespoons of blueberries
11 tinned cherries
14 fresh cherries
2 clementines
6 damsons
3 fresh dates
2 fresh figs
150ml glass of unsweetened fruit juice
3 heaped tablespoons of tinned fruit salad
3 heaped tablespoons of fresh fruit salad
150ml glass of fruit smoothie
1 handful of gooseberries
8 segments of tinned grapefruit
half a fresh grapefruit
1 handful of grapes
2 kiwi fruit
8 Kumquats
6 tinned lychees
6 fresh lychees
3 heaped tablespoons of tinned mandarin oranges
1 fresh mandarin orange
2 slices of fresh mango (5cm or 2 inch)
1 slice of melon (5cm or 2 inch)
1 nectarine
1 orange
6 passion fruits
1 slice of pawpaw (papaya)
2 halves of tinned peaches
1 fresh peach
2 halves of tinned pears
1 fresh pear
2 rings of tinned pineapple
3 tablespoons of crushed pineapple
1 large slice of fresh pineapple
2 plums
6 tinned prunes
3 prunes
20 tinned raspberries
2 handfuls of fresh raspberries
5 chunks of tinned rhubarb
2 heaped tablespoons of cooked rhubarb
2 satsumas
1 sharon fruit
9 tinned strawberries
7 fresh strawberries
1 heaped tablespoon of sultanas
2 tangerines
1 heaped tablespoon of tomato puree
2 tinned whole tinned plum tomatoes
1 large fresh tomato
7 fresh cherry tomatoes
4 dried apple rings
3 whole dried apricots
1 handful of dried banana chips
1 heaped tablespoon of dried cherries
1 heaped tablespoon of dried cranberries
1 heaped tablespoon of dried currants
2 dried figs
1 heaped tablespoon of dried mangoes
1 heaped tablespoon of dried mixed fruit
2 halves of dried peaches
2 halves of dried pear
1 heaped tablespoon of dried pineapple
3 dried prunes
1 tablespoon of raisins
4 sundried tomatoes